Kakusandha

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Kakusandha is the name of the twenty-fifth Buddha, the first of the five Buddhas of the present era, and the fourth of the seven ancient Buddhas. In the Buddhist texts in Sanskrit, this Buddha is known as Krakucchanda. In Tibetan, he is known as Khorvadjig.

The following biography is recorded in the Buddhavamsa, one of the books of the Pāli Canon.

He was one of the 28 Buddhas of this world system.

Kakusandha was born in Khema Park in Gothihawa in Lumbini Zone, Nepal . His father was Aggidatta, a Brahmin chaplain of the king Khemankara of Khemavati. His mother was Visakha. His wife was Virochamana (also known as Rocani); he had a son, Uttara. Asoka visited Gotihawa, Nepal when he visited Lumbini, Nepal and installed a stone pillar and inscribed his visit in the pillar. There is also a stupa in Gothihawa. Therefore, it is generally accepted due to the pillar that the birthplace of Kakusandha is in Gothihawa, Nepal near Kapilvastu, Lumbini, Devadaha and Ramagrama of Nepal.

Kakusandha lived for four thousand years in the household in three palaces: Ruci, Suruci and Vaddhana (or Rativaddhana). At the age of four thousand, he renounced the worldly life while riding on a chariot. He practised austerities for eight months. Beforing attaining enlightenment, he had accepted some milk-rice from the daughter of the brahmin Vajirindha of the village Suchirindha, as well as grass for his seat from the yavapalaka Subhadda. He attained enlightenment (Buddhism) under a sirisa tree, then delivered his first sermon to the assembly of eighty-four thousand monks in a park near Makila.

Kakusandha performed the twin miracle under a sala tree, at the gates of Kannakujja. Among his converts was a fierce yaksha named Naradeva. Kakusandha kept the fast-day (uposatha) every year.

His chief disciples were Vidhura and Sanjiva among the monks, and Sama and Champa among the nuns. His personal attendant was Buddhija. Acchuta and Samana among the men, and Nanda and Sunanda among the women were his chief lay-supporters. Acchuta built a monastery for Kakusandha Buddha on the same site, which was later chosen by Anathapindika for Jetavana Arama for Gautama Buddha.

According to the Samyutta Nikaya (ii.194), the Vepulla peak of Rajgir was then called Pachinvamsa; and the people of the region Tivara.

Kakusandha died at the age of forty thousand years at the Khema Park. The bodhisattva who was to become Siddhartha Gautama was born as King Khema during the time of Kakusandha.

Since there is no archeological evidence for the existence of Kakusandha, he is placed in the Legendary figures category. But for Theravada Buddhists and most other Buddhists, Kakusandha was a real person who became a Buddha.