Evil (pàpa) is a force or a presence of extreme negativity. In many religions evil is believed to originate from a particular being called the Devil or Satan, who is said to cause disasters and to tempt people into doing wrong. According to Buddhism evil certainly exists in the form of cruelty, murder, avariciousness and theft, but it is caused by the greed, hatred and ignorance that reside in the human heart, not by an external agent. Thus for Buddhists countering evil is done through moral education – personal and social – not by exorcisms, charms, prayers or ceremonies that are supposed to keep the Devil at bay.
- Buddhism and the Mythology of Evil. T.Ling, 1965.