France has over two hundred Buddhist meditation centers, including about twenty sizable retreat centers in rural areas. The Buddhist population mainly consists of Chinese and Vietnamese immigrants, with a substantial minority of native French converts and “sympathizers.” The rising popularity of Buddhism in France has been the subject of considerable discussion in the French media and academy in recent years.
Zen Buddhist communities
Taisen Deshimaru was a Japanese Zen Buddhist who founded numerous zendos in France. Thich Nhat Hanh, a Nobel Peace Prize-nominated, Vietnamese-born Zen Buddhist, founded the Unified Buddhist Church (Eglise Bouddhique Unifiée) in France in 1969. Plum Village, a monastery and retreat center in the Dordogne in southern France, is his residence and the headquarters of his international Sangha.
Vajrayana Buddhist communities
By the late 1990s, it has been estimated that there are more than 140 Tibetan Buddhist meditation centers in France. The first Tibetan Buddhist communities in France were established in the early 1970s. The highest-ranking head of schools to reside in France, H.E. Phendé Khenchen, established his temple of E Wam Phendé Ling in 1973. He is of the Ngor school of Buddhism. Buddhism in France's growth was catalyzed by visits, in 1973 and 1974 respectively, of the Karmapa and Dalai Lama, two of the highest lamas. In 1975, Dudjom Rinpoche and Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche, also very high lamas, visited Dordogne, where they established retreat centers with the help of Pema Wangyal Rinpoche. Pema Wangyal Rinpoche is the son of Kangyur Rinpoche, another high lama who was among the first to take western disciples.
Kalu Rinpoche, also a highly esteemed lama, led the first tradition three-year retreat for westerners in France starting in 1976. In the Kagyu lineage such retreats confer the title “lama” on those who complete them. It is estimated that sixty percent of the centers and monasteries in France are affiliated with the Kagyu school.
There are about twenty retreat centres representing all the different schools as well as many town-based centres which are under the direction of great Tibetan Buddhist masters.  Dhagpo Kundreul Ling in Auvergne is said to be the biggest Buddhist monastery outside of Asia.
Some of the larger retreat centers are:
- Chanteloube (Songtsen) in Dordogne (founded by Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche)
- Dashang Kagyu Ling (Temple Des Milles Boudhas) in Bourgogne (founded by Kalu Rinpoche)
- Dechen Chöling in Limousin (founded by Sakyong Mipham Rinpoche)
- Dhagpo Dargye Lin in Archignac (founded by Shamar Rinpoche)
- Dhagpo Dedrol Ling in Plazac (founded by Gendun Rinpoche)
- Dhagpo Kundreul Ling in Auvergne (founded by Gendun Rinpoche)
- Dhagpo Kagyu Ling in Dordogne (founded by Gendun Rinpoche)
- Drukpa Plouray Pel Drukpay Tcheutsok in Brittany (founded by the Gyalwang Drukpa
- Karma Kagyu Tendar Ling in Dordogne ((founded by Karmapa Orgyen Trinley Dorje)
- E Wam Phendé Ling in Normandy (founded by H.E. Phende Kenchen)
- Karma Ling in Savoie (founded by Kalu Rinpoche)
- Karma Mingyur Ling in Isère (Montchardon) (founded by Lama Tonsang)
- Institut Vajra Yogini in the Tarn department (Lavaur)
- Lerab Ling in Languedoc-Roussillon (founded by Sogyal Rinpoche)
- Nalanda Buddhist Monastery (Lavaur, Tarn District), founded by Lama Yeshe and Lama Zopa Rinpoche of the FPMT (the Foundation for the Preservation of the Mahayana Tradition)
- Ogyen Kunzang Chöling in Alpes-de-Haute-Provence (founded by Robert Spatz)
- Orgyen Samye Chöling (Laugeral) in Dordogne (founded by Dudjom Rinpoche)
- Shechen Tennyi Dargyeling (La Sonnerie) in Dordogne (founded by Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche)
Monasticism has traditionally been the bedrock of Tibetan Buddhism, but there were only a few dozen ordained French monks and nuns until the mid-1990s. However, there are now at least 300, most of whom were trained at the two monasteries in Auvergne.
The most famous French monk in the Tibetan Buddhist tradition is Matthieu Ricard, a longtime student of Dilgo Khyenste Rinpoche who is the son of famous philosopher Jean-Francois Revel. He has published books on Buddhism which have contributed to interest in Buddhism and French Buddhists among the intelligentsia.