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Pasenadi was a Aikṣvāka dynasty (a dynasty founded by King Ikṣvāku) ruler of Kosala. He succeeded his father Mahākosala. He was a prominent upasaka (lay follower) of the Buddha, who built many Buddhist monasteries.

Pasenadi studied in Taxila in his early life. His first queen was a Magadhan princess. His second queen was Vāsavakhattiyā, daughter of Mahānāma,a Śākya by a slave girl Nāgamundā. From this marriage, he had a son, Viḍūḍabha and a daughter Vajirā, whom he married to Ajatashatru. His third and chief queen was Mallika, daughter of the chief of garland-makers. Once, while he was away from his capital Savatthi, his minister Dīgha Chārāyana placed his son Viḍūḍabha on the throne. He went to Magadha to seek help from Ajatashatru in order to regain his throne. But before being able to meet him, Pasenadi died of exposure outside the gates of Rajagriha. The Puranas instead of Viḍūḍabha mention the name of Suratha as his successor.