Samyuktagama 139

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Saṃyuktāgama 139. [First Discourse on Worry, Sorrow, Vexation,and Pain]

Thus have I heard. At one time the Buddha was staying at Sāvatthī in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

At that time the Blessed One said to the monks: “The existence of what is the cause, by clinging to what,2 by being fettered and attached to what, by seeing what as the self, do not yet arisen worry, sorrow, vexation, and pain arise and already arisen worry, sorrow, vexation, and pain increase further?”

The monks said to the Buddha: “The Blessed One is the root of the Dharma, the eye of the Dharma, the foundation of the Dharma. May he explain this fully. Having heard it, the monks will uphold and receive it respectfully.”

The Buddha said to the monks: “The existence of bodily form is the cause, by clinging to bodily form, by being fettered and attached to bodily form, by seeing bodily form as a self, not yet arisen worry, sorrow, vexation, and pain arise, and already arisen worry, sorrow, vexation, and pain increase further. Feeling … perception … formations … consciousness is also like this.

“Monks, what do you think, is bodily form permanent or is it impermanent?”

They replied: “It is impermanent, Blessed One.”

[The Buddha] asked again: “What is impermanent, is it dukkha?”

They replied: “It is dukkha, Blessed One.”

[The Buddha said:] “In this way, monks, what is impermanent is dukkha. Because there is dukkha, with this matter arising, there is being fettered, being attached, and the view of a self. This causes not yet arisen worry, sorrow, vexation, and pain to arise, and it causes already arisen worry, sorrow, vexation, and pain to increase further. Feeling … perception … formations … consciousness is also like this.

“Therefore, monks, whatever bodily form, whether past, future or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, sublime or repugnant, far or near, it is all not self, not distinct from the self [in the sense of being owned by it], does not exist [within the self, nor does a self] exist [within it]. This is called right wisdom. Feeling … perception … formations … consciousness is also like this.

“Again, what is seen, heard, experienced, cognized, aroused, searched for, remembered, followed with mental application (vitakka ), and followed with mental sustaining (vicāra ), all that is not self, not distinct from the self [in the sense of being owned by it], does not exist [within the self, nor does a self] exist [within it]. This is called right wisdom.

“If there is the view that a self exists and a world exists, and that the existence of this world and the existence of another world is permanent, lasting, and unchanging ― all that is not self, not distinct from the self [in the sense of being owned by it], does not exist [within the self, nor does a self] exist [within it]. This is called right wisdom.

“If again there is the view that this world and a self do not exist, that nothing belongs to the self in this world, that the self will not be in the future and anything belonging to the self will not be in the future ― all that is not self, not distinct from the self [in the sense of being owned by it], does not exist [within the self, nor does a self] exist [within it]. This is called right wisdom.

“Suppose a learned noble disciple examines these six standpoints for views as not self and not belonging to a self. One who contemplates in this way abandons doubt in relation to the Buddha, abandons doubt in relation to the Dharma … in relation to the Community. Monks, this is called a learned noble disciple who no longer tolerates the undertakingof a bodily, verbal or mental deed that would lead to the three evil destinies. Even if he is negligent, the noble disciple is certain to proceed to awakening, within seven existences of going and coming among deva s and humans he will make an end of dukkha.”

When the Buddha had spoken this discourse, hearing what the Buddha had said the monks were delighted and received it respectfully.